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About the program

checkmark_485342pa82ho (1).png Annotation

Targeted scientific and technical program “Creation of a quasi-high-entropy alloy using Kazakhstani raw materials and technology for the production of precision parts based on it.”

Purpose of the program: Development of the composition of a quasi-high-entropy alloy using raw materials of Kazakhstan content and technology for the production of precision parts based on it for medium and heavy engineering.

Relevance of the program is due to the following.

Most of the precision parts for medium and heavy engineering (gas and oil pipeline fittings, replacement parts for pumps, metallurgical equipment, mining machines, etc.) are currently supplied to the Republic of Kazakhstan from abroad, which makes the country economically dependent. Meanwhile, the level of development of metallurgical and foundry production in the Republic of Kazakhstan allows us to produce our own precision parts from appropriate materials. For example, the LVM method (lost wax casting) and the LGM method (gasification casting) are quite developed, which make it possible to obtain shaped parts with high geometric accuracy and surface cleanliness. It is obvious that the development of its own technologies for the production of precision parts is an urgent task for the Republic of Kazakhstan, of strategic importance.

The second circumstance that determines the relevance of this program is the fact that the possibilities for improving existing alloys using traditional methods (alloying, heat treatment, after-furnace treatment) have virtually been exhausted. Meanwhile, the global trend in metal science is the creation of a new class of alloys, the so-called high-entropy alloys (HEA). The interest shown in these alloys is associated with the possibility of obtaining performance properties of a higher level compared to traditional alloys. However, despite the demonstration of high performance properties, high-entropy alloys have not yet received practical and industrial application, because The production of wind power plants is a complex and expensive process. This program proposes the creation of a quasi-high-entropy alloy (QVES), i.e. an alloy that is similar in composition and properties to VES, but is easier to produce and, therefore, has higher commercial attractiveness.

Scientific novelty of the program.The main scientific idea of ​​the program is to develop the composition and technology for producing a quasi-high-entropy alloy based on the Fe-Cr-other elements system, i.e. an alloy that is close in properties and structure to a high-entropy alloy, but at the same time has commercial attractiveness and practical applicability.

The development of the KVES composition consists of scientific substantiation of the alloy composition through thermodynamic calculations, selection of a charge with high Kazakhstani content and development of smelting technology.

The development of technology for producing precision parts consists of substantiating and calculating the technological parameters of the LVM process using the developed KVES.

The fundamental difference between the proposed idea. There are currently no existing analogues in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The difference from world analogues lies in the use of Kazakhstani raw materials, which determines a completely new phase composition of the alloy and its purpose (the main objects are precision parts of equipment in the mining and metallurgical sector). The use of Kazakhstani raw materials and adaptation to the level of fixed assets determines the commercial attractiveness of the developed KVES and the technology for producing parts based on it.

Expected result in the case of implementing the developed technology for producing precision parts from the new KVES, the service life is increased by 1.5-2 times compared to existing ones due to the improvement of the special properties of the alloy, such as heat resistance, wear resistance, etc.

Basic approaches to research consist in collecting and analyzing information, developing hypotheses about mechanisms of strengthening (improvement) due to internal and external influences and their experimental confirmation.

To achieve results, modern research methods will be used: electron microscopy, X-ray phase and X-ray structural analyses, methods for determining hardness, strength, wear resistance and heat resistance.

The results of laboratory tests will be checked at production sites. To confirm the objectivity of the results obtained, independent tests will be carried out in the laboratories of the Institute of Metallurgy J. Lamur (University of Lorraine, Nancy, France), Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Vilnius, Lithuania), Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (St. Petersburg, Russia). All research will be carried out free of charge within the framework of cooperation agreements between universities.

Significance of the program.The development of KVES and technology for the production of precision parts based on it is of strategic importance for the Republic of Kazakhstan, because will allow:

-firstly, reduce the share of imports (precision replacement parts for medium and heavy engineering) in this segment of the economy;

-secondly, it will make it possible to create a completely new class of alloys - alloys with a quasi-equiatomic composition, which will provide an increase in the level of performance properties.

The implementation of this program contributes to the development of subcontracting - a modern tool for interaction between large and small businesses. Currently, this segment is practically undeveloped in the Republic of Kazakhstan, with the exception of isolated examples. Meanwhile, the introduction of the developed technology will make it possible to establish specific relationships between large manufacturers and small enterprises that can specialize in the production of products from KVES of Kazakhstani content. Also, the development of technology will help expand the range of manufactured parts, reduce the share of imports, and create new jobs.

During the implementation of the program, new data will be obtained on the phase composition, the strengthening mechanism, and the structure of the alloys, and the relationships between casting parameters and the basic mechanical properties of the alloys will be obtained.

New knowledge will contribute to the development of the national school of metallurgy and metal physics, which will take domestic metallurgical science to a fundamentally new level.

The results obtained will be published in scientific and technical publications in accordance with the technical specifications.

As a result of the implementation of the program, prototypes, security documents and technical documentation of the developed technology will be obtained, which will allow the implementation of the developed technology and further commercialization of the results obtained.

The relevance of the program is confirmed by the co-financing of the program by one of the leading manufacturers of mining and metallurgical equipment in Kazakhstan, LLP Karaganda Machine-Building Plant named after. Parkhomenko."

checkmark_485342pa82ho (1).pngExplanatory note

General concept of the program.

2.1. Introductory part.

The main idea of ​​the program is to create a quasi-high entropy alloy (QHEA) based on the Fe-Cr-other elements system and technology for producing precision parts based on it. By KVES we mean an alloy that is close in properties and structure to a high-entropy alloy, but at the same time has commercial attractiveness and practical applicability.

The developed CVES composition will have a composition close to equiatomic, which will determine its structure: a bcc or fcc lattice, where the main matrix phase is a substitutional solid solution. This structure and specific phase composition provide higher performance properties than traditional steels.

The development of the KVES composition consists of scientific substantiation of the alloy composition through thermodynamic calculations, selection of a charge with high Kazakhstani content and development of smelting technology.

The development of technology for producing precision parts consists of substantiating and calculating the technological parameters of the LVM process using the developed KVES.

The fundamental difference of the proposed idea is as follows. There are currently no existing analogues in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The difference from world analogues lies in the use of Kazakhstani raw materials, which determines a completely new phase composition of the alloy and its purpose (the main objects are precision parts of equipment in the mining and metallurgical sector). The use of Kazakhstani raw materials and adaptation to the level of fixed assets determines the commercial attractiveness of the developed KVES and the technology for producing parts based on it.

The expected result in the case of using the developed technology for producing precision parts from the new KVES is an increase in service life by 1.5-2 times compared to existing ones due to the improvement of the special properties of the alloy, such as heat resistance, wear resistance, etc.

2.2. Purpose of the program.

Development of the composition of a quasi-high-entropy alloy (KVES) using Kazakhstani raw materials and technology for the production of precision parts based on it for medium and heavy engineering.

2.3. Program objectives.

1. Monitoring the Kazakhstan market in order to identify the most in demand precision equipment parts for medium and heavy engineering;

The solution to this problem is necessary to determine the most common grades of steels and alloys used for the production of precision parts for equipment in the mining and metallurgical sector, and the problems in their smelting and the choice of casting method, taking into account the availability of fixed assets.

2. Scientific substantiation of the composition of KVES and the selection of raw materials of Kazakhstani content for their production;

The solution to this problem is necessary to determine the scientifically based preliminary composition of the alloy with a predicted set of properties.

3. Development of the composition of KVES based on Kazakhstani raw materials;

The solution to this problem is directly related to the previous problem and is necessary for conducting experimental melts.

4. Development and provision of logistics measures to ensure effective communication between raw material bases - preparation of raw materials - alloy production - alloy processing;

Solving this problem is necessary to determine the logistics chain for technology implementation.

5. Development of technology for the production of precision parts from KVES, taking into account the level of development of the main metallurgical means of the Republic of Kazakhstan;

Solving this problem is key and is necessary to determine the basic and experimental studies in laboratory conditions and the preliminary flow sheet.

6. Conducting industrial tests, adjusting and introducing the developed technology at enterprises of the Republic of Kazakhstan;

Solving this problem is necessary to obtain the results of testing the developed technology in production conditions. Based on the results obtained, the technology will be adjusted.

7. Conducting an advertising campaign (publications in the media, booklets, holding round tables on the developed technology among potential consumers.

Solving this problem is necessary to disseminate the developed technology and search for potential partners to commercialize the results of the program.

8. Creation of experimental products with improved performance properties by 15-20% and a high proportion of Kazakhstani content (up to 70%).

Solving this problem is necessary to confirm the unique properties of the experimental alloy and the proposed technology. Also to determine the possibility of introducing the developed technology into production and conducting an advertising campaign and subsequent possible commercialization of the results of the program.

checkmark_485342pa82ho (1).pngScientific novelty and significance of the program

1) A significant part of the parts of the mining, metallurgical and mechanical engineering industries are made from complex alloy steels and alloys [1]. Most of these parts operate under difficult conditions (high temperatures, wear, long service life, etc.). Accordingly, in addition to basic characteristics, the materials used are required to have high performance and special properties, depending on the purpose of the parts.

Currently, the possibilities for obtaining and improving the properties of steels and alloys using traditional methods are practically exhausted; the introduction of additional types of processing requires significant both time and material investments. In connection with this, the modern trend for obtaining unique performance properties of parts is the development of a new class of alloys, such as KVES. In this regard, a large number [1-9] of works are devoted to the study of fundamental problems of the new vector of materials science. It is possible to highlight publications containing an overview of problems associated with the features of production, research, features of the structure and properties of multicomponent systems.

Many studies [10-15] are associated with the search for common parameters that determine the conditions for creating a wind farm, i.e. predicting the structural-phase state based on various systems, including elements such as Al, Cr, Co, Fe, Ni, etc. The composition of a high-entropy alloy determines its properties and possible applications: as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, heat-resistant, etc. All works note that wind farms show unique properties that are 15-20% superior to traditional analogues in their field. However, almost all studies note that the high-entropy alloy under study has not yet received industrial application, because its production requires high-purity charge materials, long-term smelting technology (multiple remelting in protective environments or vacuum, laser technologies, plasma-arc and high-temperature synthesis), which determines its high cost.

In fundamental reviews in this direction [16-18], about 200 HEAs have been studied to date, depending on their properties, and future possibilities for the development and use of these alloys have been substantiated. The publications describe problems with the specifics of preparation, research, structure and properties. It is also noted that many aspects of the behavior of HEAs, such as the behavior of dislocations during deformation, texture changes, twinning, etc. require further in-depth study. It is obvious that the new knowledge obtained about the behavior of wind farms will open up new possibilities for their application in the future.

A number of works [13,14,19] note that the development of wind energy systems is of practical interest and requires further development of research in this direction to solve fundamental problems such as predicting state diagrams of multi-element systems, principles and algorithms for searching for new alloys, features of thermodynamics, structure and wind farm stability. At the same time, the data presented in the literature on the structure of multicomponent HEAs, the condition of their stability, and the influence of the parameters for obtaining these alloys on the structure and properties are ambiguous.

The basis for the proposed technology is an analysis of research carried out in this direction [20-24], and our own developments related to the research and processing of complex alloyed multicomponent alloys [25,26]. The authors of the program conducted research into the study of structure and phase transformations in multicomponent systems. The experimental data obtained are prerequisites for the creation of new alloys that are similar in composition and properties to HEAs.

The fundamental difference between the developed KVES and its world analogues is the use of Kazakhstani raw materials, which determines a completely new phase composition of the alloy and its purpose (the main objects are precision parts of equipment in the mining and metallurgical sector). The use of Kazakhstani raw materials and adaptation to the level of fixed assets determines the commercial attractiveness of the developed KVES and the technology for producing parts based on it.

The advantage of the proposed idea for this project lies in the commercial attractiveness of the developed alloys, the relative simplicity of the technology for their production, adapted to the level of fixed assets of the Republic of Kazakhstan and their practical applicability. The developed technology for producing quasi-high-entropy alloys will not require significant investments in the acquisition of fixed assets, due to the use of Kazakhstani-made raw materials and the use of a simplified casting method.

The term “quasi-high-entropy” is used in this case because It is not expected to maintain a strictly equiatomic composition characteristic of wind farms. This will reduce the requirements for charge materials and simplify the production technology. The authors of works [27, 28] studied the properties of quasi-high-entropy alloys, in which it was shown that the properties of these alloys are similar in properties to expensive high-entropy alloys, and exceed the properties of traditional materials of this direction by 7-10 times. The authors of some works use the term quasi-high-entropy to obtain HEAs with a certain three-dimensional structure, which makes it possible to obtain excellent characteristics with some deviation from the equiatomic composition.

For Kazakhstan, this program is fundamentally new, because There are practically no works devoted to the development of KVES. Meanwhile, this question is important, because will significantly increase the service life of parts smelted from an experimental KVES by improving both basic and special properties. The implementation of the proposed technology does not require a complete replacement of fixed assets, due to the adaptation of the technology to the level of assets of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

2) The implementation of the program is aimed at solving the main tasks outlined in the Strategy “Kazakhstan - 2050”. The goal is “...By 2050, Kazakhstan must completely update its production assets in accordance with the latest technological standards. In the most competitive industries, we need to actively develop strategies for creating new market niches for domestic producers...” The mining and metallurgical industry is one of the key sectors of the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan; the share of equipment and parts of the mining and metallurgical complex is almost 40% of the total volume of engineering products consumed by the country.

Meanwhile, Kazakhstan has every opportunity for its own production of quasi-high-entropy alloys. The implementation of this program will contribute to the development of this strategically important area. The development of the proposed technology, by increasing its performance properties, will increase productivity and reduce downtime and expand our own production of replacement parts for mining and metallurgical equipment.

New knowledge gained during the implementation of the program will contribute to the development of domestic metallurgical science as a whole, which will allow us to develop our own production of KVES and reduce the share of imports in this segment.

3) The development of the composition of a new alloy of the KVES class and the technology for its production is due to the fact that the possibilities for improving operational properties are currently practically exhausted. At the same time, almost all equipment used by the mining and metallurgical industry operates in extremely difficult conditions, under the influence of abrasive and abrasive loads, at high or elevated temperatures and in an aggressive environment.

Traditional materials for the manufacture of this equipment or parts are steels or alloys with a special focus: heat resistance, wear resistance, etc. Improved properties are achieved through additional alloying, modification, and heat treatment. All these measures make it possible to increase properties by 10-15% with a slight increase in cost.

Thus, it is obvious that the next step in development in this direction is the creation of new alloys with a completely different approach. Such an alternative is quasi-high-entropy alloys (QHEA), which demonstrate a high level of performance properties with a relatively small increase in cost, in contrast to classical HEA.

The successful implementation of this project will allow us to obtain completely new results and scientific knowledge, which will largely determine the development trends of modern metal science.

4) There are no analogues of this technology in the Republic of Kazakhstan, because There is practically no research in this direction. Existing analogs are the developments of Russia, China, Ukraine, Japan, etc., but the wind farms they offer have not received industrial application, because focused on high technology. In the world, research on the development of quasi-high-entropy alloys to obtain unique material properties is a trend. However, it should be noted that existing studies consider high-entropy alloys containing elements with approximately equal equimolar contents. Data on the development of quasi-high-entropy alloys, as well as the simplified technologies specifically proposed by us, were not found in the public domain.

The development of this technology will improve the quality and performance properties of precision parts at minimal cost, while special properties will improve by 15-20%, which will increase the competitiveness of our own products in this segment.

5) There are no existing analogues of the technology being developed.

The advantages of the new alloy compared to existing analogues are:

- lower cost due to the use of Kazakhstani raw materials;

- a balanced chemical composition close to equiatomic, which determines the level of properties of the alloy, comparable to the level of properties of wind turbines;

- commercial attractiveness and practical applicability. Currently, VES alloys have no practical use due to their high cost. Existing quasi-wind farms are focused mainly on increasing heat resistance. The proposed quasi-wind farm has a higher level of mechanical properties; in addition, it has corrosion resistance and wear resistance, which determines a wider range of consumers.

The target markets for the products offered are enterprises of metallurgical and foundry specialization, but indirectly, as potential consumers of finished engineering products, such sectors as mining, metallurgical, processing, oil and others.

The developed technology can be implemented at any enterprise in these sectors of the economy, regardless of geographic location, form of ownership of the enterprise and volume of products.

6) The final product of the program is prototypes of a new class of alloy KVES and the technology for their production. There are no analogues to the technology being developed; prototypes will have properties 15-20% higher than those currently used. At the same time, according to preliminary estimates, the cost of the product will not increase significantly due to the technology adapted to the level of fixed assets of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

7) The applicant has experience in this area. The team of authors previously dealt with issues related to the research and processing of complex alloys; the research results were published in the open press. The results obtained are interconnected with this program, because allow you to use the acquired knowledge in the development of subsequent experiments. Previous research by the applicants created the prerequisites for the creation of new alloys similar in composition and properties to high-energy alloys.